Even a professional interpreter faces a number of objective difficulties that must be taken into account.
Initially, the main factor
is that the information in the interpretation process is intangible, as opposed to translation or sheet translation.
This is also significantly complicated by the specifics of the speech of the sender and recipient of information, personal professional and psychological qualities of the translator.
The role of memory in the interpretation process is extremely important, and is of great help with a good command of the language and shorthand.
Short-term memory is one of the basic concepts of interpretation. This memory stores information for short periods of time (several seconds). It differs from the sensory one in that the memorized material can remain in the short-term memory for as long as desired due to repetition, which contributes to the transition of information from short-term memory to long-term memory.
What should a translator do if information is stored in short-term memory for less than 30 seconds? It is possible to expand the volume of short-term memory by structuring the information received, transforming groups of words and sentences into more compact structures, focusing primarily on the predicate, since it is easiest, as a rule, to remember the subject of the action, if this is not the first time heard a name.
The background knowledge of the translator is also very important: that is, associative memory begins to work here, when a person recalls previously received, worked out information when reproducing new information.
It is also necessary to learn how to adequately highlight the semantic units, isolating the most important, since the process of interpretation consists of two stages – analysis (when information is perceived) and synthesis (directly speaking). In addition, during oral translation, the situation of non-perception of a separate segment of the text is not excluded due to various circumstances. The reason for this may be noise, any kind of interference, incorrectly pronounced speech units, unfamiliar words (terms, proper names, abbreviations). The translator can overcome these obstacles by correctly highlighting the semantic structure and taking into account the context.